In the thread You linked, there are a lot information about this topic.
I try to make a little summary here.
Official poker rules doesn't say too much about behaviour at the tables(nearly nothing). There are a document, made by the Poker Tournament Directors Association, that defines a collection of rules to make the game better, simpler and more ethic. Many big tournaments use these rules (mostly in America). You can find the rules HERE.
As you can see, on the last page there are a few sections about the penalty problem, saying:
Tournament staff can assess a 1-hand penalty,
1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-round penalties or
So, even with these rules, the penalty depends on the tournament staff and the exact situation. Since it is impossible to define a rule for every type of sentence a player can say, there used to be an experienced judge, who decides about the penalties. This judge can be a floorman, or, in smaller casinos the dealer him/herself.
It is possible, that some casinos and tournaments make their own rules and penalties to make the situations and the decisions more simple. If You want to play at a casino and it has its own rules, You should read them to avoid bad surprises like disqualification. If the casino has no such a collection of rules, You can not refer to some general poker rules(to defend your behaviour), You will be in the hands of the judge.